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Contagion

Contagion

Author: Andrew Robert Aisenberg
Publisher:
ISBN: 0804733953
Pages: 238
Year: 1999-01-01
Contagion was a persistent theme in discussions about urban and industrial social problems in nineteenth-century France. From the cholera epidemic of 1832 to the Public Health Law of 1902, contagious disease was associated with poverty by scientists, government administrators, and politicians. They debated the moral, economic, and social causes of disease and sought new and innovative justifications and techniques for regulating the factors associated with disease. In so doing, French scientific and government elites transformed the efforts to explain and prevent contagion into a new way of thinking about social problems in general. Drawing on the approaches of intellectual and social history and the work of Michel Foucault, the author investigates the intersection of scientific, political, and professional interests that informed perceptions and understandings of contagion in nineteenth-century France. By charting the development of the modern notion of contagion in France—from the highest echelons of scientific research in the Academy of Medicine to the activities of government authorities to the work of neighborhood hygiene commissions in Paris—the author reveals how the preoccupation with disease was mediated by an attempt to expand the possibilities of government intervention into urban and industrial life, especially life among the working poor. All in all, the book not only offers a more nuanced explanation of how scientific knowledge about disease was produced but also reveals the emergence of science as a form of state social power that significantly extended the scope of government in Republican France.
Contagion

Contagion

Author: Bruce Magnusson, Zahi Zalloua
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 0295804203
Pages: 184
Year: 2012-09-01
Over many decades, "contagion" has been a metaphor of choice for everything from global terrorism, suicide bombings, poverty, immigration, global financial crises, human rights, fast food, obesity, divorce, and homosexuality. Essays examine the language of epidemiology used in the war on terror, the repressive effects of global disease surveillance, and films and novels that enact the perplexities of contagion in a global context. Fear of microbial disaster becomes a framework for larger questions about the nature and location of sovereignty and the related questions of contact and hygienic isolation, fear and invisibility, the hazards of sociability, the security of surveillance, and what a healthy security might mean. Utilizing the cross-disciplinary approach of global studies, contagion emerges as a vexed trope for globalization itself.
Contagious Metaphor

Contagious Metaphor

Author: Peta Mitchell
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1441104216
Pages: 208
Year: 2013-03-14
The metaphor of contagion pervades critical discourse across the humanities, the medical sciences, and the social sciences. It appears in such terms as 'social contagion' in psychology, 'financial contagion' in economics, 'viral marketing' in business, and even 'cultural contagion' in anthropology. In the twenty-first century, contagion, or 'thought contagion' has become a byword for creativity and a fundamental process by which knowledge and ideas are communicated and taken up, and resonates with André Siegfried's observation that 'there is a striking parallel between the spreading of germs and the spreading of ideas'. In Contagious Metaphor, Peta Mitchell offers an innovative, interdisciplinary study of the metaphor of contagion and its relationship to the workings of language. Examining both metaphors of contagion and metaphor as contagion, Contagious Metaphor suggests a framework through which the emergence and often epidemic-like reproduction of metaphor can be better understood.
Imagining Contagion in Early Modern Europe

Imagining Contagion in Early Modern Europe

Author: Claire L. Carlin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230522610
Pages: 289
Year: 2005-10-14
The ideological underpinnings of early modern theories of contagion are dissected in this volume by an integrated team of literary scholars, cultural historians, historians of medicine and art historians. Even today, the spread of disease inspires moralizing discourse and the ostracism of groups thought responsible for contagion; the fear of illness and the desire to make sense of it are demonstrated in the current preoccupation with HIV, SARS, 'mad cow' disease, West Nile virus and avian flu, to cite but a few contemporary examples. Imagining Contagion in Early Modern Europe explores the nature of understanding when humanity is faced with threats to its well-being, if not to its very survival.
Contagion and the National Body

Contagion and the National Body

Author: Gerald O'Brien
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351394088
Pages: 138
Year: 2018-04-09
Drawing on the work of George Lakoff, this book provides a detailed analysis of the organism metaphor, which draws an analogy between the national or social body and a physical body. With attention to the manner in which this metaphor conceives of various sub-groups as either beneficial or detrimental to the (social) body’s overall functioning, the author examines the use of this metaphor to view marginalized sub-populations as invasive or contagious entities that need to be treated in the same way as harmful bacteria or pathogens. Analyzing the organism metaphor as it was employed in the service of social injustice through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the United States, Contagion and the National Body focuses on the alarm eras of the restrictive immigration period (1890–1924), the agitation against Chinese and Japanese populations on the West Coast, the eugenic period’s targeting of feeble-minded persons and other "defectives," periods of anti-Semitism, the anti-Communist movements, and various forms of racial animosity against African-Americans.
Contagious

Contagious

Author: Jonah Berger
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1451686587
Pages: 256
Year: 2016-05-03
Dynamic young Wharton professor Berger draws on his research to explain the six steps that make products or ideas contagious. Why do some products get more word of mouth than others? Why does some online content go viral?
A Treatise on the Means of Purifying Infected Air, of Preventing Contagion, and Arresting Its Progress

A Treatise on the Means of Purifying Infected Air, of Preventing Contagion, and Arresting Its Progress

Author: Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau
Publisher:
ISBN:
Pages: 248
Year: 1802

Imagining Contagion in Early Modern Europe

Imagining Contagion in Early Modern Europe

Author: Claire L. Carlin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230522610
Pages: 289
Year: 2005-10-14
The ideological underpinnings of early modern theories of contagion are dissected in this volume by an integrated team of literary scholars, cultural historians, historians of medicine and art historians. Even today, the spread of disease inspires moralizing discourse and the ostracism of groups thought responsible for contagion; the fear of illness and the desire to make sense of it are demonstrated in the current preoccupation with HIV, SARS, 'mad cow' disease, West Nile virus and avian flu, to cite but a few contemporary examples. Imagining Contagion in Early Modern Europe explores the nature of understanding when humanity is faced with threats to its well-being, if not to its very survival.
Infectious Ideas

Infectious Ideas

Author: Justin K. Stearns
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421401053
Pages: 304
Year: 2011-02-28
Based on Stearns's analysis of Muslim and Christian legal, theological, historical, and medical texts in Arabic, Medieval Castilian, and Latin, Infectious Ideas is the first book to offer a comparative discussion of concepts of contagion in the premodern Mediterranean world.
Virality

Virality

Author: Tony D. Sampson
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 0816670056
Pages: 235
Year: 2012
In this thought-provoking work, Tony D. Sampson presents a contagion theory fit for the age of networks. Unlike memes and microbial contagions,Virality does not restrict itself to biological analogies and medical metaphors. It instead points toward a theory of contagious assemblages, events, and affects. For Sampson, contagion is not necessarily a positive or negative force of encounter; it is how society comes together and relates. Sampson argues that a biological knowledge of contagion has been universally distributed by way of the rhetoric of fear used in the antivirus industry and other popular discourses surrounding network culture. This awareness is also detectable in concerns over too much connectivity, such as problems of global financial crisis and terrorism. Sampson's “virality” is as established as that of the biological meme and microbe but is not understood through representational thinking expressed in metaphors and analogies. Rather, Sampson interprets contagion theory through the social relationalities first established in Gabriel Tarde's microsociology and subsequently recognized in Gilles Deleuze's ontological worldview. According to Sampson, the reliance on representational thinking to explain the social behavior of networking—including that engaged in by nonhumans such as computers—allows language to overcategorize and limit analysis by imposing identities, oppositions, and resemblances on contagious phenomena. It is the power of these categories that impinges on social and cultural domains. Assemblage theory, on the other hand, is all about relationality and encounter, helping us to understand the viral as a positively sociological event, building from the molecular outward, long before it becomes biological.
Contagion

Contagion

Author: Alison Bashford, Claire Hooker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134540655
Pages: 256
Year: 2002-11-01
In the age of HIV, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the Ebola Virus and BSE, metaphors and experience of contagion are a central concern of government, biomedicine and popular culture. Contagion explores cultural responses of infectious diseases and their biomedical management over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It also investigates the use of 'contagion' as a concept in postmodern reconceptualisations of embodied subjectivity. The essays are written from within the fields of cultural studies, biomedical history and critical sociology. The contributors examine the geographies, policies and identities which have been produced in the massive social effort to contain diseases. They explore both social responses to infectious diseases in the past, and contemporary theoretical and biomedical sites for the study of contagion.
Initiation to the Mathematics of the Processes of Diffusion, Contagion and Propagation

Initiation to the Mathematics of the Processes of Diffusion, Contagion and Propagation

Author: J. P. Monin, Raphaël Benayoun, B. Sert
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN:
Pages: 94
Year: 1976-01-01
Translation of Initiation aux mathematiques des processus de diffusion, contagion et propagation.
Confronting Contagion

Confronting Contagion

Author: Melvin Santer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199356378
Pages: 304
Year: 2014-09-02
Throughout history, humankind's working theories regarding the cause of infectious disease have shifted drastically, as cultures developed their philosophic, religious, and scientific beliefs. Plagues that were originally attributed to the wrath of the gods were later described as having nothing to do with the gods, though the cause continued to be a mystery. As centuries passed, medical and religious theorists proposed reasons such as poor air quality or the configuration of the planets as causes for the spread of disease. In every instance, in order to understand the origin of a disease theory during a specific period of history, one must understand that culture's metaphysical beliefs. In Confronting Contagion, Melvin Santer traces a history of disease theory all the way from Classical antiquity to our modern understanding of viruses. Chapters focus on people and places like the Pre-Socratic Philosophers, Galen and the emergence of Christianity in Rome, the Black Death in fourteenth-century Europe, cholera and puerperal sepsis in the nineteenth century, and other periods during which our understanding of the cause of disease was transformed. The cause of contagious disease was demonstrated to be a general biological phenomenon; there are contagious diseases of plants, animals, and bacteria, with causes identical to causes of human diseases. These issues are uniquely included in this book. In each case, Santer identifies the key thinkers who helped form the working disease theories of the time. The book features many excerpts from primary sources, from the Hippocratic Corpus to the writings of twentieth-century virologists, creating an authentic synthesis of the Western world's intellectual and religious attitude toward disease throughout history.
Arresting Contagion

Arresting Contagion

Author: Alan L. Olmstead
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674967224
Pages:
Year: 2015-02-09
Sixty percent of infectious human diseases are shared with other vertebrates. Alan Olmstead and Paul Rhode tell how innovations to combat livestock infections—border control, food inspection, drug regulation, federal research labs—turned the U.S. into a world leader in combatting communicable diseases, and remain central to public health policy.
Thought Contagion

Thought Contagion

Author: Aaron Lynch
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 0786725648
Pages: 208
Year: 2008-08-06
Fans of Douglas Hofstadter, Daniel Bennet, and Richard Dawkins (as well as science buffs and readers of Wired Magazine) will revel in Aaron Lynch’s groundbreaking examination of memetics--the new study of how ideas and beliefs spread. What characterizes a meme is its capacity for displacing rival ideas and beliefs in an evolutionary drama that determines and changes the way people think. Exactly how do ideas spread, and what are the factors that make them genuine thought contagions? Why, for instance, do some beliefs spread throughout society, while others dwindle to extinction? What drives those intensely held beliefs that spawn ideological and political debates such as views on abortion and opinions about sex and sexuality?By drawing on examples from everyday life, Lynch develops a conceptual basis for understanding memetics. Memes evolve by natural selection in a process similar to that of Genes in evolutionary biology. What makes an idea a potent meme is how effectively it out-propagates other ideas. In memetic evolution, the "fittest ideas” are not always the truest or the most helpful, but the ones best at self replication.Thus, crash diets spread not because of lasting benefit, but by alternating episodes of dramatic weight loss and slow regain. Each sudden thinning provokes onlookers to ask, "How did you do it?” thereby manipulating them to experiment with the diet and in turn, spread it again. The faster the pounds return, the more often these people enter that disseminating phase, all of which favors outbreaks of the most pathogenic diets. Like a software virus traveling on the Internet or a flu strain passing through a city, thought contagions proliferate by programming for their own propagation. Lynch argues that certain beliefs spread like viruses and evolve like microbes, as mutant strains vie for more adherents and more hosts. In its most revolutionary aspect, memetics asks not how people accumulate ideas, but how ideas accumulate people. Readers of this intriguing theory will be amazed to discover that many popular beliefs about family, sex, politics, religion, health, and war have succeeded by their "fitness” as thought contagions.