On savait, depuis La Violence et le Sacré, que toute société humaine est fondée sur la violence, mais une violence tenue à distance et comme transfigurée dans l’ordre du sacré. Dans ce nouveau livre, René Girard applique cette intuition originaire au grand recueil mythique de la mémoire occidentale, c’est-à-dire à la Bible qui est tout entière, selon lui, le cheminement inouï vers le Dieu non violent de notre civilisation. Il s’ensuit une relecture critique et proprement révolutionnaire du texte évangélique qui apparaît du coup comme un grand texte anthropologique, le seul à révéler pleinement le mécanisme victimaire. Il s’ensuit aussi la fondation d’une nouvelle psychologie fondée sur un mécanisme simple et universel que Girard appelle la « mimésis » et qui permet de faire le partage entre les processus d’appropriation, générateurs de violence, et les antagonismes, producteurs de sacré. Chemin faisant, on assiste à de magistrales analyses comparatives de Proust et de Dostoïevski, de Freud et de Sophocle, à la lumière de cette notion nouvelle et qui se révèle particulièrement féconde de « désir mimétique ». René Girard, cette fois, approche du but, de cette anthropologie générale qui est, de son propre aveu, le projet ultime de son œuvre : c’est pourquoi il nous donne là peut-être un des livres clés pour comprendre les mystères de notre monde et de ses plus lointaines, de ses plus archaïques généalogies.
Presenting an original global theory of culture, Girard explores the social function of violence and the mechanism of the social scapegoat. His vision is a challenge to conventional views of literature, anthropology, religion and psychoanalysis. Rene Gerard is the Andrew B. Hammond Professor Emeritus of French Language, Literature and Civilization at Stanford University, USA.
What do we know about the Book of Job? Not very much. The hero complains endlessly. He has just lost his children all his livestock. He scratches his ulcers. The misfortunes of which he complains are all duly enumerated in the prologue. They are misfortunes brought on him by Satan with God's permission. We think we know, but are we sure? Not once in the Dialogues does Job mention either Satan or anything about his misdeeds. Could it be that they are too much on his mind for him to mention them? Possibly, yet Job mentions everything else, and does much more than mention. He dwells heavily on the cause of his misfortune, which is none of those mentioned in the prologue. The cause is not divine, satanic nor physical, but merely human.
Rene Girard and Myth
Author: Richard Golsan
First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
The Palgrave Handbook of Mimetic Theory and Religion draws on the expertise of leading scholars and thinkers to explore the violent origins of culture, the meaning of ritual, and the conjunction of theology and anthropology, as well as secularization, science, and terrorism. Authors assess the contributions of René Girard’s mimetic theory to our understanding of sacrifice, ancient tragedy, and post-modernity, and apply its insights to religious cinema and the global economy. This handbook serves as introduction and guide to a theory of religion and human behavior that has established itself as fertile terrain for scholarly research and intellectual reflection.
Mensonge romantique et vérité romanesque - La violence et le sacré - Des choses cachées depuis la fondation du monde - Le bouc émissaire « Les sujet étudiés dans ces quatre livres sont très différents les uns des autres : les romans modernes d'abord, les religions archaïques ensuite, la Bible et le christianisme enfin. Il y a dans ce recueil un diversité des outils d'analyse auxquels je recours : l'hypothèse du désir mimétique d'une part ; la théorie du bouc émissaire de l'autre ; la révélation destructrice du mécanisme victimaire enfin. Mais au cœur de ces quatres livres rassemblés ici – ce qui me plaît infiniment – l'essentiel est une question encore plus brûlante aujourd'hui qu'à l'époque où je me la suis posée. Il s'agit de la question de la violence dans son rapport avec le religieux. » René Girard
Evolution and Conversion
Author: René Girard
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Evolution and Conversion explores the main tenets of René Girard's thought in a series of dialogues. Here, Girard reflects on the evolution of his thought and offers striking new insights on topics such as violence, religion, desire and literature. His long argument is a historical one in which the origin of culture and religion is reunited in the contemporary world by means of a reinterpretation of Christianity and an understanding of the intrinsically violent nature of human beings. He also offers provocative re-readings of Biblical and literary texts and responds to statements by Daniel Dennett and Richard Dawkins. Including an introduction by the authors, this is a revealing text by one of the most original thinkers of our time.
An investigation into the Christological ideas of three contemporary thinkers: Slavoj Žižek, Gianni Vattimo and René Girard.
Parts of an Andrology
Author: Lawrence R. Schehr
Publisher: Stanford University Press
The subject of this original and provocative work is the white male body, a counterpoint in gender studies to the many readings of the representation of the female body. To look at the construction of this figure, the author examines a group of discontinuous works that are representative of the discontinuity in the intermittent representation of the male body. Especially in nineteenth-century narrative, where Edgar Allan Poe and Guy de Maupassant write astutely on the subject, there is never continuity in representing the male body. "The Pit and the Pendulum" and Bel-Ami are flickering, episodic investigations into the male body as subject, as sentient feeling, as the subject of torture or of adulation. Not until the twentieth century can this male subject be continuously represented. Though the male body is often at center stage, in works that treat it as a metonymy of its own phallic and phallocentric power, this body has less often been seen relative to pleasure and pain, to aesthetics, to human vulnerability. An introductory chapter explores a work by Alberto Moravia, Io e lui, as well as various manifestations of the male body's most salient part, the penis, in contemporary discourse and aesthetics. Another chapter deals with writings about the forbidden activity of masturbation and focuses on the work of three disparate writers: Paul Bonnetain, Michel Tournier, and Philip Roth. In the final chapter, the author discusses several works that focus on the representation of the male body during the gay liberation movement in France and the subsequent celebration of the male body, ending with the inscription of the male body in the literature of AIDS. Among the authors discussed are Guy Hocquenghem, Hervé Guibert, and Michel Foucault.
Violence and the Sacred
Author: RenÃ© Girard
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Violence and the Sacred is RenÃ© Girard's landmark study of human evil. Here Girard explores violence as it is represented and occurs throughout history, literature and myth. Girard's forceful and thought-provoking analyses of Biblical narrative, Greek tragedy and the lynchings and pogroms propagated by contemporary states illustrate his central argument that violence belongs to everyone and is at the heart of the sacred.
In a fascinating analysis of critical themes in Feodor Dostoevsky’s work, René Girard explores the implications of the Russian author’s “underground,” a site of isolation, alienation, and resentment. Brilliantly translated, this book is a testament to Girard’s remarkable engagement with Dostoevsky’s work, through which he discusses numerous aspects of the human condition, including desire, which Girard argues is “triangular” or “mimetic”—copied from models or mediators whose objects of desire become our own. Girard’s interdisciplinary approach allows him to shed new light on religion, spirituality, and redemption in Dostoevsky’s writing, culminating in a revelatory discussion of the author’s spiritual understanding and personal integration. Resurrection is an essential and thought-provoking companion to Dostoevsky’s Notes from the Underground.
Publisher: L'AGE D'HOMME
The Portable Kristeva
Author: Julia Kristeva
Publisher: Columbia University Press
As a linguist, Julia Kristeva has pioneered a revolutionary theory of the sign in its relation to social and political emancipation; as a practicing psychoanalyst, she has produced work on the nature of the human subject and sexuality, and on the "new maladies" of today's neurotic. The Portable Kristeva is the only fully comprehensive compilation of Kristeva's key writings. The second edition includes added material from Kristeva's most important works of the past five years, including The Sense and Non-Sense of Revolt, Intimate Revolt, and Hannah Arendt. Editor Kelly Oliver has also added new material to the introduction, summarizing Kristeva's latest intellectual endeavors and updating the bibliography.
Author: Jim Bell, Stephen Brown, David Carson
The present volume of essays examines the extent to which the end of marketing is nigh. The authors explore the present state of marketing scholarship and put forward a variety of visions of marketing in the twenty first century. Ranging from narratology to feminism, these suggestions are always enlightening, often provocative and occasionally outrageous. Maketing Apocalypse is required reading for anyone interested in the future of marketing.