Author: Patrick Hanks
Publisher: MIT Press
In Lexical Analysis, Patrick Hanks offers a wide-ranging empirical investigation of word use and meaning in language. The book fills the need for a lexically based, corpus-driven theoretical approach that will help people understand how words go together in collocational patterns and constructions to make meanings. Such an approach is now possible, Hanks writes, because of the availability of new forms of evidence (corpora, the Internet) and the development of new methods of statistical analysis and inferencing. Hanks offers a new theory of language, the Theory of Norms and Exploitations (TNE), which makes a systematic distinction between normal and abnormal usage -- between rules for using words normally and rules for exploiting such norms in metaphor and other creative use of language. Using hundreds of carefully chosen citations from corpora and other texts, he shows how matching each use of a word against established contextual patterns plays a large part in determining the meaning of an utterance. His goal is to develop a coherent and practical lexically driven theory of language that takes into account the immense variability of everyday usage and that shows that this variability is rule governed rather than random. Such a theory will complement other theoretical approaches to language, including cognitive linguistics, construction grammar, generative lexicon theory, priming theory, and pattern grammar.
The Business Plan
Author: Braun Bennett
The ultimate guide to writing an effective business plan. The work book will guide you through the process of writing a quality business plan in less than 14 days. You can build a professional business plan that will secure financing and communicate your idea to banks, investors, management and customers.
Grabovoi's exercises teach people how to control events in their lives by using different concentration techniques. The exercises will help people grow spiritually and guarantee continued development.
Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language Algol 68
Author: A. van Wijngaarden, B.J. Mailloux, J.E.L. Peck, C.H.A. Koster, C.H. Lindsey, M. Sintzoff, L.G.L.T. Meertens, R.G. Fisker
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
From the point of view of computational linguistics, morphological resources are the basis for all higher-level applications. This is especially true for languages with a rich morphology, such as German or Finnish. A morphology component should thus be capable of analyzing single word forms as well as whole corpora. For many practical applications, not only morphological analysis, but also generation is required, i.e., the production of surfaces corresponding to speci?c categories. Apart from uses in computational linguistics, there are also numerous practical - plications that either require morphological analysis and generation or that can greatly bene?t from it, for example, in text processing, user interfaces, or information - trieval. These applications have speci?c requirements for morphological components, including requirements from software engineering, such as programming interfaces or robustness. In 1994, the First Morpholympics took place at the University of Erlangen- Nuremberg, a competition between several systems for the analysis and generation of German word forms. Eight systems participated in the First Morpholympics; the conference proceedings  thus give a very good overview of the state of the art in computational morphologyfor German as of 1994.
Almost overnight, EPUB has become the favored standard for displaying digital text on ereaders. The EPUB specification is a powerful method for creating gorgeous ebooks for EPUB-capable readers such as the iPad, Nook, and Kindle. Alas, it is far from perfect, with frustrating limitations, sketchy documentation, and incomplete creation tools. This extensively researched guide to creating EPUB files by best-selling author Elizabeth Castro shows you how to prepare EPUB files, make the files look great on the screen, work around EPUB weaknesses, and fix common errors. In this essential book, Liz shares her hard-earned experience for how to: Create EPUB files from existing Microsoft Word or Adobe InDesign files, or from scratch. Tweak EPUB files to take full advantage of the power of EPUB in each respective ereader. Control spacing, indents, and margins. Insert images and sidebars and wrap text around them. Create links to external sources and cross-references to internal ones. Add video to ebooks for the iPad.
School success in the 21st century requires proficiency with expository discourse -- the use and understanding of informative language in spoken and written modalities. This occurs, for example, when high school students read their textbooks and listen to their teachers' lectures, and later are asked to demonstrate their knowledge of this complex topic through oral reports and essay examinations. Although many students are proficient with the expository genre, others struggle to meet these expectations. This book is designed to provide information on the use and understanding of expository discourse in school-age children, adolescents, and young adults. Recently, researchers from around the world have been investigating the development of this genre in typical students and in those with language disorders. Although many books have addressed the development of conversational and narrative discourse, by comparison, books devoted to the topic of expository discourse are sparse. This crossdisciplinary volume fills that gap in the literature and makes a unique contribution to the study of language development and disorders. It will be of interest to a range of professionals, including speech-language pathologists, teachers, linguists, and psychologists who are concerned with language development and disorders.
This book presents a comprehensive set of tools for assessing the linguistic abilities of bilingual children. It aims to disentangle effects of bilingualism from those of Specific Language Impairment (SLI), making use of both models of bilingualism and models of language impairment.
Author: Gisa Rauh
Publisher: OUP Oxford
This book offers a systematic account of syntactic categories - the building blocks of sentences and the units of grammatical analysis - and explains their place in different theories of language. It sets out and clarifies the conflicting definitions of competing frameworks which frequently make it hard or impossible to compare grammars. Gisa Rauh describes the history and nature of traditional and contemporary accounts and definitions of grammatical categories. She explains their properties and use in generative, cognitive, and functional theories, and considers their function in language typology. She distinguishes between the cognitive functions of categories that relate to traditional parts of speech and serve to structure a language's lexicon; and those which determine the syntactic behaviour of the linguistic items they specify. Professor Rauh illustrates her account with a wide range of examples. Her clear and balanced exposition will be welcomed by students and scholars in all branches of linguistics as well as by those in related subjects such as computational science and the philosophy of language.
The Oxford School Dictionary is specially written for students at school and at home. It has been trialled and tested in schools and contains 40,000 words and phrases.
After the Wall
Author: Jana Hensel
Publisher: Public Affairs