Le signe de la croix
Author: Pierre Erny
Publisher: Editions L'Harmattan
Le geste qui consiste à tracer sur soi une croix est sans doute aussi ancien que le christianisme lui-même, mais la manière de s'y prendre a varié au cours des siècles, sans qu'on sache à quels moments se situent les tournants majeurs et quelles ont été les motivations. Le présent ouvrage essaie de retracer cette évolution en insistant sur les significations qui s'attachent à ce geste et à sa symbolique, quelle soit spécifiquement chrétienne ou universelle.
Signs and Symbols
Author: Adrian Frutiger
Universally-recognized signs and symbols have always been among the most important elements of communication. By why is it that certain configurations of dot and line, and certain primary shapes, are perceived and remembered more easily than others? Taking the six faces of dice as his starting point, Frutiger writes about signs and symbols in general and the development of writing in particular. Throughout, he relates the basic principles and components of graphics to a wide range of historical, physical, linguistic and practical considerations. He embraces everything from Egyptian hieroglyphics to modern company logos in his intriguing analysis of the way that humans have always tried to express thought and communication through graphic means. This standard work is aimed at all those concerned with graphics, design, ornament and communication in general.
Jerome's Epitaph on Paula
Author: Saint Jerome
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Composed in 404, Jerome's Epitaph on Saint Paula (Epitaphium Sanctae Paulae) is an elaborate eulogy commemorating the life of Paula (347-404), a wealthy Christian widow from Rome who renounced her senatorial status and embraced an ascetic lifestyle and in 386 co-founded with Jerome a monastic complex in Bethlehem.
Les sourds sont porteurs d'une radicale étrangeté. Pour eux, être sourd réfère moins à un déficit d'audition qu’à l’affiliation à un groupe linguistique et culturel possédant son langage propre, la langue des signes. Celle-ci, pour emprunter un canal différent de celui de toutes les autres langues humaines, en offre cependant les mêmes fonctions et les mêmes richesses. L’ethnologue donne ici à voir cet autre côté du miroir, et le livre vient infirmer les représentations communes de la surdi-mutité comme malheur individuel.
Probablement composÃ©e vers le milieux du XIVe siÃ¨cle, La Belle HÃ©lÃ¨ne de Constantinople s'inscrit Ã la croisÃ©e d'une double et fÃ©conde tradition. Tout en empruntant les grandes lignes de son scÃ©nario au conte populaire de la Fille aux mains coupÃ©es, qui connaÃ®t une vogue surprenante dans la littÃ©rature europÃ©enne du temps, elle s'affiche aussi comme l'un des ultimes reprÃ©sentants de la production Ã©pique mÃ©diÃ©vale et multiplie les marques rhÃ©toriques d'allÃ©geance au genre. Sur son thÃ©Ã¢tre de marionnettes, animÃ© d'une piÃ©tÃ© ardente et d'un authentique souffle de croisade, l'auteur fait dÃ©filer les figures populaires de saint Martin, de Clovis, et d'une foule de comparses, voire d'improbables descendants, vouÃ©s Ã une canonisation approximative. Il inscrit ainsi l'intrigue archÃ©typale et intemporelle du conte dans une histoire mythique des origines de l'Europe chrÃ©tienne. C'est Ã analyser les modalitÃ©s de cette provocante imbrication de la geste et du conte que s'attache cette Ã©tude.
Totem and Taboo
Author: Sigmund Freud, Abraham Arden Brill
Author: Marilyn Strathern
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Central as kinship has been to the development of British social anthropology, this is the first attempt by an anthropologist to situate ideas about English kinship in a cultural context. Marilyn Strathern challenges the traditional separation of Western kinship studies from the study of the wider society. If contemporary society appears diverse, changing and fragmented, these same features also apply to people's ideas about kinship. She views ideas of relatedness, nature and the biological constitution of persons in their cultural context, and offers new insights into the late twentieth-century values of individualism and consumerism. After Nature is a timely reflection at a moment when advances in reproductive technology raise questions about the natural basis of kinship relations.
Author: Sam Migliore
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
The evil eye has received considerable attention in the literature of disciplines as diverse as anthropology and medicine. Researchers have attempted to identify and explain this essentially ambiguous and variable phenomenon from a number of perspectives - as a culture-bound syndrome, an idiom of distress, a mechanism of social control, and a representation of psychobiological fear. In Mal'uocchiu: Ambiguity, Evil Eye, and the Language of Distress, Sam Migliore shifts the focus of discussion from paradigms to a practical examination of how people use the notion of the evil eye in a variety of sociocultural contexts, particularly in various aspects of Sicilian-Canadian culture and experience. Drawing on the theories of Luigi Pirandello and Ludwig Wittgenstein, Migliore argues that mal'uocchiu, and by implication other folk constructs, is like a character in search of an author to give it 'form' or 'meaning.' The book begins by considering the indeterminate nature of the evil-eye complex. Migliore proposes that this indeterminacy allows people to create myriad alternative meanings and messages to define and make sense of their personal experiences. He then examines how the evil eye relates to Sicilian-Canadian conceptions of health and illness, and discusses treatment and prevention strategies. Throughout the study, the author blends context-setting, case studies, personal recollection, and interpretation to provide readers with an accessible, alternative look at the multifaceted nature of this folk tradition. His position as both an anthropologist and a community 'insider' affords him a unique perspective on the subject. This study will be essential reading for students of medical anthropology, religion, and ethnic studies.
The Evil Eye
Author: Alan Dundes
Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
The evil eye--the power to inflict illness, damage to property, or even death simply by gazing at or praising someone--is among the most pervasive and powerful folk beliefs in the Indo-European and Semitic world. It is also one of the oldest, judging from its appearance in the Bible and in Sumerian texts five thousand years old. Remnants of the superstition persist today when we drink toasts, tip waiters, and bless sneezers. To avert the evil eye, Muslim women wear veils, baseball players avoid mentioning a no-hitter in progress, and traditional Jews say their business or health is "not bad" (rather than "good"). Though by no means universal, the evil eye continues to be a major factor in the behavior of millions of people living in the Mediterranean and Arab countries, as well as among immigrants to the Americas. This widespread superstition has attracted the attention of many scholars, and the twenty-one essays gathered in this book represent research from diverse perspectives: anthropology, classics, folklore studies, ophthalmology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, sociology, and religious studies. Some essays are fascinating reports of beliefs about the evil eye, from India and Iran to Scotland and Slovak-American communities; others analyze the origin, function, and cultural significance of this folk belief from ancient times to the present day. Editor Alan Dundes concludes the volume by proffering a comprehensive theoretical explanation of the evil eye. Anyone who has ever knocked on wood to ward off misfortune will enjoy this generous sampling of evil eye scholarship, and may never see the world through the same eyes again.
First published in 1987. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.