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¿Por qué cooperamos?

¿Por qué cooperamos?

Author: Michael Tomasello
Publisher: Katz Editores
ISBN: 8492946091
Pages: 188
Year: 2010-07-01
¿Qué es lo que distingue a la naturaleza humana? Los teólogos han insistido en su propensión al vicio; Hobbes, en su disposición a la guerra; los padres, en las tendencias egoístas de los niños. Sin embargo, si dejamos caer un objeto frente a un niño de 2 años, lo más probable es que lo alce y nos lo alcance. Y eso, según Michael Tomasello -uno de los expertos de mayor reconocimiento internacional en el campo de las ciencias cognitivas- no es producto de una conducta aprendida. A partir de la observación de niños pequeños, Tomasello afirma que ellos cooperan naturalmente, a diferencia por ejemplo de los chimpancés, que en situaciones experimentales demuestran cierta capacidad para el trabajo en conjunto pero fundamentalmente lo eluden. En '¿Por qué cooperamos?', Tomasello individualiza los procesos psicológicos que probablemente dieron sustento a las formas más tempranas de colaboración compleja entre los seres humanos, procesos que fueron el germen de nuestras formas de organización cultural, desde el aumento de la tolerancia y la confianza, hasta la creación de estructuras grupales como las normas y las instituciones culturales. "Una fascinante aproximación a la cuestión acerca de qué hace singulares a los seres humanos." Publishers Weekly
Diario de las actas y discusiones de las Córtes

Diario de las actas y discusiones de las Córtes

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Year: 1821

Diario de las actas y discusiones de las Córtes

Diario de las actas y discusiones de las Córtes

Author: Spain. Cortes (1820-1823), Spain. Ministerio de Estado, Spain. Ministerio de la Gobernación, Spain. Ministerio de Ultramar, Spain. Ministerio de Gracia y Justicia, Spain. Ministerio de Hacienda
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Year: 1821



Discusiones internas sobre labores de investigación y docencia

Discusiones internas sobre labores de investigación y docencia

Author: Centro de Investigación Científica y Educación Superior de Ensenada
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Year: 1987

Iguaima

Iguaima

Author: Jairo Arias Barragán
Publisher:
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Pages: 348
Year: 1996-01-01



Revista mexicana de sociología

Revista mexicana de sociología

Author: Lucio Mendieta y Núñez
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Year: 1957

Diplomacia

Diplomacia

Author:
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Year: 2004


Why We Cooperate

Why We Cooperate

Author: Michael Tomasello
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262258498
Pages: 232
Year: 2009-08-28
Understanding cooperation as a distinctly human combination of innate and learned behavior. Drop something in front of a two-year-old, and she's likely to pick it up for you. This is not a learned behavior, psychologist Michael Tomasello argues. Through observations of young children in experiments he himself has designed, Tomasello shows that children are naturally—and uniquely—cooperative. Put through similar experiments, for example, apes demonstrate the ability to work together and share, but choose not to. As children grow, their almost reflexive desire to help—without expectation of reward—becomes shaped by culture. They become more aware of being a member of a group. Groups convey mutual expectations, and thus may either encourage or discourage altruism and collaboration. Either way, cooperation emerges as a distinctly human combination of innate and learned behavior. In Why We Cooperate, Tomasello's studies of young children and great apes help identify the underlying psychological processes that very likely supported humans' earliest forms of complex collaboration and, ultimately, our unique forms of cultural organization, from the evolution of tolerance and trust to the creation of such group-level structures as cultural norms and institutions. Scholars Carol Dweck, Joan Silk, Brian Skyrms, and Elizabeth Spelke respond to Tomasello's findings and explore the implications.
Diario de las Sesiones de Cortes

Diario de las Sesiones de Cortes

Author:
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Year: 1907

Why Not Socialism?

Why Not Socialism?

Author: G. A. Cohen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140083063X
Pages: 96
Year: 2009-08-24
Is socialism desirable? Is it even possible? In this concise book, one of the world's leading political philosophers presents with clarity and wit a compelling moral case for socialism and argues that the obstacles in its way are exaggerated. There are times, G. A. Cohen notes, when we all behave like socialists. On a camping trip, for example, campers wouldn't dream of charging each other to use a soccer ball or for fish that they happened to catch. Campers do not give merely to get, but relate to each other in a spirit of equality and community. Would such socialist norms be desirable across society as a whole? Why not? Whole societies may differ from camping trips, but it is still attractive when people treat each other with the equal regard that such trips exhibit. But, however desirable it may be, many claim that socialism is impossible. Cohen writes that the biggest obstacle to socialism isn't, as often argued, intractable human selfishness--it's rather the lack of obvious means to harness the human generosity that is there. Lacking those means, we rely on the market. But there are many ways of confining the sway of the market: there are desirable changes that can move us toward a socialist society in which, to quote Albert Einstein, humanity has "overcome and advanced beyond the predatory stage of human development."