Real or Fake
Author: Joe Nickell
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
Will the rare autographed baseball your great-uncle gave you put your children through college? Is your grandmother’s chest of drawers really a seventeenth-century antique, or merely a reproduction? A leader in forgery detection and forensic investigation, Joe Nickell reveals his secrets to detecting artifacts items in Real or Fake: Studies in Authentication. Detailing how the pros determine whether an Abraham Lincoln signature is forged or if a photograph of Emily Dickinson is genuine, Nickell provides the essential tools necessary to identify counterfeits. In this general introduction to the principles of authentication, Nickell provides readers with step-by-step explanations of the science used to detect falsified documents, photographs, and other objects. Illustrating methods used on hit shows such as Antiques Roadshow and History Detectives, Nickell recommends that aspiring investigators employ a comprehensive approach to identifying imitations. One should consider the object’s provenance (the origin or derivation of an artifact), content (clues in the scene or item depicted), and material composition (what artifacts are made of), as well as the results of scientific analyses, including radiographic, spectroscopic, microscopic, and microchemical tests. Including fascinating cases drawn from Nickell’s illustrious career, Real or Fake combines historical and scientific investigations to reveal reproductions and genuine objects. Nickell explains the warning signs of forgery, such as patching and unnatural pen lifts; chronicles the evolution of writing instruments, inks, and papers; shows readers how to date photographs, papers, and other materials; and traces the development of photographic processes since the mid-nineteenth century. Lavishly illustrated with examples of replicas and authentic objects inspected by Nickell, Real or Fake includes case studies of alleged artifacts including Jack the Ripper’s diary, a draft of the Gettysburg Address, notes by Charles Dickens, Jefferson Davis’s musket, and debris from the Titanic.
As media becomes more readily available in the digital age, it also becomes more vulnerable to tampering and manipulation, making techniques for verifying reliable news and media sources essential. Understanding online technologies role in shaping the media environment allows for insight into the correlations between the rapidly transforming media landscape and its unwanted effect on news and content tampering. Cross-Media Authentication and Verification: Emerging Research and Opportunities is a collection of innovative research on the methods and applications of verifying the newsgathering and publishing process. While highlighting topics including human authentication, information evaluation, and tampered content, this book is ideally designed for researchers, students, publishers, and academicians seeking current research on media authenticity and misinformation.
The Science of Ghosts
Author: Joe Nickell
Publisher: Prometheus Books
Are ghosts real? Are there truly haunted places, only haunted people, or both? And how can we know? Taking neither a credulous nor a dismissive approach, this first-of-its-kind book solves those perplexing mysteries and more--even answering the question of why we care so very much. Putting aside purely romantic tales, this book examines the actual evidence for ghosts--from eyewitness accounts to mediumistic productions (such as diaphanous forms materializing in dim light), spirit photographs, ghost-detection phenomena, and even CSI-type trace evidence. Offering numerous exciting case studies, this book engages in serious investigation rather than breathless mystifying. Pseudoscience, folk legends, and outright hoaxes are challenged and exposed, while the historical, cultural, and scientific aspects of ghost experiences and haunting reports are carefully explored. The author--the world's only professional paranormal investigator--brings his skills as a stage magician, private detective, folklorist, and forensic science writer to bear on a topic that demands serious study. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Author: Alexander Geurds, Laura Van Broekhoven
Publisher: Sidestone Press
‘Authenticity’ and authentication is at the heart of museums’ concerns in displays, objects, and interaction with visitors. These notions have formed a central element in early thought on culture and collecting. Nineteenth century-explorers, commissioned museum collectors and pioneering ethnographers attempted to lay bare the essences of cultures through collecting and studying objects from distant communities. Comparably, historical archaeology departed from the idea that cultures were discrete bounded entities, subject to divergence but precisely therefore also to be traced back and linked to, a more complete original form in de (even) deeper past. Much of what we work with today in ethnographic museum collections testifies to that conviction. Post-structural thinking brought about a far-reaching deconstruction of the authentic. It came to be recognized that both far-away communities and the deep past can only be discussed when seen as desires, constructions and inventions. Notwithstanding this undressing of the ways in which people portray their cultural surroundings and past, claims of authenticity and quests for authentication remain omnipresent. This book explores the authentic in contemporary ethnographic museums, as it persists in dialogues with stakeholders, and how museums portray themselves. How do we interact with questions of authenticity and authentication when we curate, study artefacts, collect, repatriate, and make (re)presentations? The contributing authors illustrate the divergent nature in which the authentic is brought into play, deconstructed and operationalized. Authenticity, the book argues, is an expression of a desire that is equally troubled as it is resilient.
Activities like text-editing, watching movies, or managing personal finances are all accomplished with web-based solutions nowadays. The providers need to ensure security and privacy of user data. To that end, passwords are still the most common authentication method on the web. They are inexpensive and easy to implement. Users are largely accustomed to this kind of authentication but passwords represent a considerable nuisance, because they are tedious to create, remember, and maintain. In many cases, usability issues turn into security problems, because users try to work around the challenges and create easily predictable credentials. Often, they reuse their passwords for many purposes, which aggravates the risk of identity theft. There have been numerous attempts to remove the root of the problem and replace passwords, e.g., through biometrics. However, no other authentication strategy can fully replace them, so passwords will probably stay a go-to authentication method for the foreseeable future. Researchers and practitioners have thus aimed to improve users' situation in various ways. There are two main lines of research on helping users create both usable and secure passwords. On the one hand, password policies have a notable impact on password practices, because they enforce certain characteristics. However, enforcement reduces users' autonomy and often causes frustration if the requirements are poorly communicated or overly complex. On the other hand, user-centered designs have been proposed: Assistance and persuasion are typically more user-friendly but their influence is often limited. In this thesis, we explore potential reasons for the inefficacy of certain persuasion strategies. From the gained knowledge, we derive novel persuasive design elements to support users in password authentication. The exploration of contextual factors in password practices is based on four projects that reveal both psychological aspects and real-world constraints. Here, we investigate how mental models of password strength and password managers can provide important pointers towards the design of persuasive interventions. Moreover, the associations between personality traits and password practices are evaluated in three user studies. A meticulous audit of real-world password policies shows the constraints for selection and reuse practices. Based on the review of context factors, we then extend the design space of persuasive password support with three projects. We first depict the explicit and implicit user needs in password support. Second, we craft and evaluate a choice architecture that illustrates how a phenomenon from marketing psychology can provide new insights into the design of nudging strategies. Third, we tried to empower users to create memorable passwords with emojis. The results show the challenges and potentials of emoji-passwords on different platforms. Finally, the thesis presents a framework for the persuasive design of password support. It aims to structure the required activities during the entire process. This enables researchers and practitioners to craft novel systems that go beyond traditional paradigms, which is illustrated by a design exercise.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC 2012), held in Kralendijk, Bonaire, February 27–March 1, 2012. The 29 revised full papers presented were carefully selected and reviewed from 88 submissions. The papers cover all aspects of securing transactions and systems, including information assurance in the context of finance and commerce.
The faking and forgery of works of art and antiquities is probably now more extensive than ever before. The frauds are aided by new technologies, from ink jet printers to epoxy resins, and driven by the astronomic prices realised on the global market. This book aims to provide a comprehensive survey of the subject over a wide range of materials, emphasising how the fakes and forgeries are produced and how they may be detected by technical and scientific examination. The subject is exemplified by numerous case studies, some turning out not to be as conclusive as is sometimes believed. The book is aimed at those likely to have a serious interest in these investigations, be they curator, collector, conservator or scientist. Paul Craddock has recently retired from the Department of Conservation, Documentation and Science at the British Museum, where he was a materials scientist.
Author: Daniel K. R. Crosswell
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
The first full biography of Smith, a fascinating American soldier and diplomat who began his career in 1911 as a private in the Indiana National Guard, and retired as a four-star general.
«Strictly speaking», James Carey wrote, «there is no history of mass communication research.» This volume is a long-overdue response to Carey’s comment about the field’s ignorance of its own past. The collection includes essays of historiographical self-scrutiny, as well as new histories that trace the field’s institutional evolution and cross-pollination with other academic disciplines. The volume treats the remembered past of mass communication research as crucial terrain where boundaries are marked off and futures plotted. The collection, intended for scholars and advanced graduate students, is an essential compass for the field.
Physician Assistant Review
Author: Patrick C. Auth, Morris D. Kerstein
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Physician Assistant Review, Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive review for students and practicing physician assistants preparing for the Certification (PANCE) and Recertification (PANRE) examinations. Nineteen sections organized by body system describe common diseases in a consistent format: etiology, pathology, clinical features, diagnostic studies, and management. Access to a companion Website offers over 1,000 Board-format questions, which can be taken in Study Mode or Test Mode, and a 360-question comprehensive exam. Complete explanations of both correct and incorrect answer choices are provided to help you better understand your area of weakness to better focus your studying. New for this edition: A new chapter, Preventive Medicine, has been added Each chapter has been updated to reflect the latest standards of care and revisions based on our readers' feedback Expanded online, updated test bank with rationales for the correct and incorrect answers to help focus your studying Team of test-item reviewers have reviewed the test questions to ensure you are getting the best quality questions
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person Authentication, AVBPA 2005, held in Hilton Rye Town, NY, USA, in July 2005. The 66 revised oral papers and 50 revised poster papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers discuss all aspects of biometrics including iris, fingerprint, face, palm print, gait, gesture, speaker, and signature; theoretical and algorithmic issues are dealt with as well as systems issues. The industrial side of biometrics is evident from presentations on smart cards, wireless devices, and architectural and implementation aspects.
Chapters of this book offer a careful selection of the best contributions to the Italian Association for Information Systems (ItAIS) Annual Conference, that took place in Venice, San Servolo Island, in October 2007. The main goal of this book is to disseminate academic knowledge, both theoretical and pragmatic, in the information systems community. Recognizing the relevance of many different disciplines, the book takes an interdisciplinary approach to the subject of information systems, thus providing a comprehensive and current coverage of this important area. ItAIS (http://www.itais.org) is the Italian chapter of the Association for Information Systems (http://www.aisnet.org). It was established in 2003 and has since been promoting the exchange of ideas, experience and knowledge among both academics and professionals committed to the development, management, organization and use of information systems.
Author: Brian Lennon
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Cryptology, the mathematical and technical science of ciphers and codes, and philology, the humanistic study of natural or human languages, are typically understood as separate domains of activity. But Brian Lennon contends that these two domains, both concerned with authentication of text, should be viewed as contiguous. He argues that computing’s humanistic applications are as historically important as its mathematical and technical ones. What is more, these humanistic uses, no less than cryptological ones, are marked and constrained by the priorities of security and military institutions devoted to fighting wars and decoding intelligence. Lennon’s history encompasses the first documented techniques for the statistical analysis of text, early experiments in mechanized literary analysis, electromechanical and electronic code-breaking and machine translation, early literary data processing, the computational philology of late twentieth-century humanities computing, and early twenty-first-century digital humanities. Throughout, Passwords makes clear the continuity between cryptology and philology, showing how the same practices flourish in literary study and in conditions of war. Lennon emphasizes the convergence of cryptology and philology in the modern digital password. Like philologists, hackers use computational methods to break open the secrets coded in text. One of their preferred tools is the dictionary, that preeminent product of the philologist’s scholarly labor, which supplies the raw material for computational processing of natural language. Thus does the historic overlap of cryptology and philology persist in an artifact of computing—passwords—that many of us use every day.
James R. Garcia was born and raised in Rocky Ford, Colorado. Went to High School and then went into the Marine Corps, for four (4) years. I spent a large portion of my life working as a Manager of Purchasing and Subcontracts for a number of Major Subcontractors in the United States. Such as Bechtel Corporation, Fluor Corporation, Rockwell International Corporation, The Boeing Company, and Ball Aerospace Corporation. I retired in 1999. Upon retiring and during my working career I was always buying selling and studying art and started and owned an Art Gallery in Kennewick, Washington, known as Garcia's Americana Art Gallery. I sold and studied the art of Edward S. Curtis, Carl Moon and Western Art in General. I showed and attended the Major Art Shows all over the Southwest. I have lectured at Galleries and Museums, in Colorado mostly on Edward S. Curtis and Carl Moon Photographs. I have also testified in Court on the collections of Curtis and Carl Moon on the authentication of many of their works of photography. The work and study of authenticating a piece of art is a most satisfying effort and hopefully there will be people in the study of art and becoming an artist, that will be able to put their efforts and study in the direction of authenticating art. I hope that my story, "The Authentication of Rembrandt's Titus F 1655," will help students to look into other avenues to follow in the field of art. James R. Garcia Collector, Connoisseur and Researcher of Fine Art
In today’s complex and volatile world the consequences of relying on fraudulent and counterfeit Hadith to legitimize extremist behavior, issue violent fatwas, and justify blatant abuse, particularly of women, is not only far too easy but in fact dangerous. Israr Khan addresses the sensitive topic of Hadith authentication, focusing on the criteria adopted by classical scholars to maintain that concentration on the continuity and accuracy of the chain of narrators, rather than the textual content of Hadith, has led to particular Hadith being included which either contradict other Hadith directly, project the Prophet (SAAS) in an uncharacteristic light, or do not reflect and/or conflict with the teachings of the Qur’an. The study traces in careful detail the historical development of the oral and written traditions, as well as the many targeted attempts at fabrication that took place, critiquing in methodical detail certain Hadith which have come to be widely accepted as “authentic.” The prominent collections we have today, were made possible by the development of the science of Hadith criticism, and Muslim scholars deserve deep appreciation for their painstaking work, as well as their invaluable contribution towards preserving the Hadith literature to the best of their ability. However, insists the author, the process is ongoing, and the closed door policy which currently surrounds Hadith authentication needs to be carefully reexamined.