The Organ Donor Experience
Author: Katrina A. Bramstedt
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Organ donors are, by definition, altruists, and their act is even more generous when they remain anonymous. But altruism doesn't tell the whole story. There are myriad motivations, some subconscious, some conscious, that compel people to donate a part of themselves to someone they don't know. The Organ Donor Experience uncovers the desires, personalities and motivations of Good Samaritan organ donors and reveals much about the process of donating an organ to a needy recipient.
Nearly 120,000 people are in need of healthy organs in the United States. Every ten minutes a new name is added to the list, while on average twenty people die each day waiting for an organ to become available. Worse, our traditional reliance on cadaveric organ donation is becoming increasingly insufficient, and in recent years there has been a decline in the number of living donors as well as in the percentage of living donors relative to overall kidney donors. Some transplant surgeons and policy advocates have responded to this shortage by arguing for the legalization of the sale of organs among living donors. Andrew Flescher objects to this approach by going beyond concerns traditionally cited about social justice, commodification, and patient safety, and moving squarely onto the terrain of discussing what motivates major and costly acts of human selflessness. What is the most efficacious means of attracting prospective living kidney donors? Flescher, drawing on literature in the fields of moral psychology and economics, as well as on scores of interviews with living donors, suggests that inculcating a sense of altruism and civic duty is a more effective means of increasing donor participation than the resort to financial incentives. He encourages individuals to spend time with patients on dialysis in order to become acquainted with their plight and, as an alternative to lump-sum payments, consider innovative solutions that positively impact living donor participation that do not undermine the spirit of the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984. This book not only re-examines the important debate over whether to allow the sale of organs; it is also the first volume in the field to take a close look at alternative solutions to the organ shortage crisis.
Shaw addresses the 'ethical turn' in contemporary sociological thinking, by exploring the contribution of sociology and the social sciences to bioethical debates about morality and tissue exchange practices.
The Global Organ Shortage
Author: T. Randolph Beard, David L. Kaserman, Rigmar Osterkamp
Publisher: Stanford University Press
Although organ transplants provide the best, and often the only, effective therapy for many otherwise fatal conditions, the great benefits of transplantation go largely unrealized because of failures in the organ acquisition process. In the United States, for instance, more than 10,000 people die every year either awaiting transplantation, or as a result of deteriorating health exacerbated by the shortage of organs. Issues pertaining to organ donation and transplantation represent, perhaps, the most complex and morally controversial medical dilemmas aside from abortion and euthanasia. However, these quandaries are not unsolvable. This book proposes compensating organ donors within a publicly controlled monopsony. This proposal is quite similar to current practice in Spain, where compensation for cadaveric donation now occurs "in secret," as this text reveals. To build their recommendations, the authors provide a medical history of transplantation, a history of the development of national laws and waiting lists, a careful examination of the social costs and benefits of transplantation, a discussion of the causes of organ shortages, an evaluation of "partial" reforms tried or proposed, an extensive ethical evaluation of the current system and its competitors.
The Soul of a Doctor
Author: Gordon Harper, Sachin H. Jain, Susan Pories
Publisher: Algonquin Books
True stories of transitioning from medical school classrooms to the realities of the hospital: “Moving, eloquent, and often unforgettable” (Atul Gawande, MD). After years of practice, doctors can sometimes seem aloof, uncaring, and hurried. What goes on in their minds? Were they always like that, or has their work changed them? And how do some physicians manage to retain their warmth and humanity over the course of a long career? This “thoughtful and illuminating” book takes us into the day-to-day lives of third-year medical students at an Ivy League school—just starting out in their profession and dealing with patients face-to-face for the first time (Publishers Weekly). In their own words, more than forty of them reveal what it’s really like to enter this field, having their principles of scientific rigor and idealism tested as they cope with real people and real crises in real time. This doctor’s-eye view of the dramas—and occasional comedies—of the world of health care offers fascinating insights about clinical medicine and a behind-the-scenes look at a job that can range from repetitive routines to life-and-death decisions at any given moment. These stories “offer a unique vantage on illness, life, and struggle—capturing in vivid glimpses that crucial moment in a doctor’s life when one transitions from outsider to insider” (Atul Gawande, MD, New York Times–bestselling author of Being Mortal). “Thoughtful and illuminating.” —Publishers Weekly
The Fear Factor
Author: Abigail Marsh
Publisher: Basic Books
How the brains of psychopaths and heroes show that humans are wired to be good At fourteen, Amber could boast of killing her guinea pig, threatening to burn down her home, and seducing men in exchange for gifts. She used the tools she had available to get what she wanted, like all children. But unlike other children, she didn't care about the damage she inflicted. A few miles away, Lenny Skutnik cared so much about others that he jumped into an ice-cold river to save a drowning woman. What is responsible for the extremes of generosity and cruelty humans are capable of? By putting psychopathic children and extreme altruists in an fMRI, acclaimed psychologist Abigail Marsh found that the answer lies in how our brain responds to others' fear. While the brain's amygdala makes most of us hardwired for good, its variations can explain heroic and psychopathic behavior. A path-breaking read, The Fear Factor is essential for anyone seeking to understand the heights and depths of human nature. "A riveting ride through your own brain."--Adam Grant "You won't be able to put it down."--Daniel Gilbert, New York Times bestselling author of Stumbling on Happiness "[It] reads like a thriller... One of the most mind-opening books I have read in years." --Matthieu Ricard, Author of Altruism
Living Donor Liver Transplantation
Author: Sheung Tat Fan, William Ignace Wei, Boon Hun Yong, Theresa Wan-Chun Hui, Alexander Chiu, Peter Wing-Ho Lee
Publisher: World Scientific
The book describes in detail the technical aspects of Living Donor Liver Transplantation (LDLT), the routine practice of the world renowned Liver Transplant Team at Hong Kong's Queen Mary Hospital, and our views on various issues of the operation. The thorough review on the history and technical procedures of LDLT and discussion on various aspects of the operation and its future perspectives will serve as a unique reference for surgeons, researchers, nurses, medical students, patients and laypersons seeking information on LDLT. This latest edition offers updated operative results from our center and the latest modifications of the technique. With contributions from a leading microvascular surgeon, a critical care clinician, a psychiatrist, and two anesthetists from the same liver transplant team, the LDLT experience at Queen Mary Hospital is depicted in an even greater extent. Contents:HistoryDonor EvaluationPsychological Assessment of Recipients and Donors in Liver TransplantationSegment II/III GraftLeft Liver Graft (Including the Caudate and the Middle Hepatic Vein)Right Liver Graft (Including the Middle Hepatic Vein)Microvascular Technique of Hepatic Artery AnastomosisAnesthesia Management of the Adult Liver Transplant Recipient and Living DonorAnesthesia for Pediatric Liver TransplantationPerioperative ICU Care of Donors and RecipientsThe Middle Hepatic Vein ControversyBiliary Complications of Right Liver LDLTSmall-for-Size Graft and InjuryDonor ResultsRecipient Results Readership: Surgeons, researchers, nurses, medical students, patients and laypersons seeking information on LDLT. Keywords:Living Donor Liver Transplant;History and Technical Procedures;Operative Results
Altruism in Humans
Author: Charles Daniel Batson
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Authored by the world's leading scholar on altruism, and based on decades of research, this landmark work is an authoritative scholarly resource on the theory surrounding altruism and its potential contribution to better interpersonal relations and a greater society. --Book Jacket.
Organ transplantation allows modern surgeons to give "new life" to chronically ill patients. At the same time, the new opportunities raise ethical questions concerning human identity and the definition of the human body. These concerns do not play out the same in all cultures or in every situation. This collection of thirty case studies illustrates the range of global and local, ethical, social, and cultural problems associated with organ transplantation. The collection also provides a list of popular movies and websites to aid instructors and their students. This work is aimed at educators in medicine, health care, philosophy, and religious studies.
EVERY SUPERHERO NEEDS TO START SOMEWHERE... Dale Sampson is used to being a nonperson at his small-town Midwestern high school, picking up the scraps of his charismatic lothario of a best friend, Mack. He comforts himself with the certainty that his stellar academic record and brains will bring him the adulation that has evaded him in high school. But when an unthinkable catastrophe tears away the one girl he ever had a chance with, his life takes a bizarre turn as he discovers an inexplicable power: He can regenerate his organs and limbs. When a chance encounter brings him face to face with a girl from his past, he decides that he must use his gift to save her from a violent husband and dismal future. His quest takes him to the glitz and greed of Hollywood, and into the crosshairs of shadowy forces bent on using and abusing his gift. Can Dale use his power to redeem himself and those he loves, or will the one thing that finally makes him special be his demise? The Heart Does Not Grow Back is a darkly comic, starkly original take on the superhero tale, introducing an exceptional new literary voice in Fred Venturini.
This book analyzes the reasons for organ shortage and ventures innovative ideas for approaching this problem. It presents 29 contributions from a highly interdisciplinary group of world experts and upcoming professionals in the field. Every year thousands of patients die while waiting for organ transplantation. Health authorities, medical professionals and bioethicists worldwide point to the urgent and yet unsolved problem of organ shortage, which will be even intensified due to the increasing life expectancy. Even though the practical problem seems to be well known, the search for suitable solutions continues and often restricts itself by being limited through disciplinary and national borders. Combining philosophical reflection with empirical results, this volume enables a unique insight in the ethics of organ transplantation and offers fresh ideas for policymakers, health care professionals, academics and the general public.
The Ethics of Altruism
Author: Jonathan Seglow
'The chief problem of human life', wrote Auguste Comte, 'is the subordination of egoism to altruism.' This collection examines the nature and value of altruism as a moral virtue, restoring it to its proper place at the centre of our moral and political thinking. The first five essays in the collection explore the relationship between altruism and other moral concepts such as self-interest, autonomy, community and impartiality. The five essays in the second part show how altruism is invoked in practical moral problems, including aid to developing countries, the market for human body parts, multiculturalism and the politics of recognition, and medical ethics. Through these discussions, the central role of altruism in moral thinking is brought into sharper focus.
Global Good Samaritans
Author: Alison Brysk
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In a troubled world where millions die at the hands of their own governments and societies, some states risk their citizens' lives, considerable portions of their national budgets, and repercussions from opposing states to protect helpless foreigners. Dozens of Canadian peacekeepers have died in Afghanistan defending humanitarian reconstruction in a shattered faraway land with no ties to their own. Each year, Sweden contributes over $3 billion to aid the world's poorest citizens and struggling democracies, asking nothing in return. And, a generation ago, Costa Rica defied U.S. power to broker a peace accord that ended civil wars in three neighboring countries--and has now joined with principled peers like South Africa to support the United Nations' International Criminal Court, despite U.S. pressure and aid cuts. Hundreds of thousands of refugees are alive today because they have been sheltered by one of these nations. Global Good Samaritans looks at the reasons why and how some states promote human rights internationally, arguing that humanitarian internationalism is more than episodic altruism--it is a pattern of persistent principled politics. Human rights as a principled foreign policy defies the realist prediction of untrammeled pursuit of national interest, and suggests the utility of constructivist approaches that investigate the role of ideas, identities, and influences on state action. Brysk shows how a diverse set of democratic middle powers, inspired by visionary leaders and strong civil societies, came to see the linkage between their long-term interest and the common good. She concludes that state promotion of global human rights may be an option for many more members of the international community and that the international human rights regime can be strengthened at the interstate level, alongside social movement campaigns and the struggle for the democratization of global governance.
Reasons and Persons
Author: Derek Parfit
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This book challenges, with several powerful arguments, some of our deepest beliefs about rationality, morality, and personal identity. The author claims that we have a false view of our own nature; that it is often rational to act against our own best interests; that most of us have moral views that are directly self-defeating; and that, when we consider future generations the conclusions will often be disturbing. He concludes that moral non-religious moralphilosophy is a young subject, with a promising but unpredictable future.