Science Is Never “Settled” Thousands of scientists are convinced beyond any reasonable doubt that recent global warming is being caused by emissions of greenhouse gases and that we must act immediately to reduce these emissions or else we may render Earth unlivable for our children and our grandchildren. Some even say “the science is settled.” What Really Causes Global Warming examines a broad range of observations that show that greenhouse warming theory is not only misguided, but not physically possible. Recent warming was caused by ozone depletion due to emissions of human-manufactured gases. We solved that problem with the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer stopping the increase in global temperatures by 1998. Volcanoes also deplete ozone. The eruption of Bárðarbunga volcano in central Iceland from August 2014 to February 2015—the largest effusive, basaltic, volcanic eruption since 1783—caused 2015 to be the hottest year on record. How can we adapt? “The work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world.”— Michael Crichton, 2003
Science Is Never "Settled" Thousands of scientists are convinced beyond any reasonable doubt that recent global warming is being caused by emissions of greenhouse gases and that we must act immediately to reduce these emissions or else we may render Earth unlivable for our children and our grandchildren. Some even say "the science is settled."What Really Causes Global Warming examines a broad range of observations that show that greenhouse warming theory is not only misguided, but not physically possible. Recent warming was caused by ozone depletion due to emissions of human-manufactured gases. We solved that problem with the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer stopping the increase in global temperatures by 1998. Volcanoes also deplete ozone. The eruption of Bárðarbunga volcano in central Iceland from August 2014 to February 2015--the largest effusive, basaltic, volcanic eruption since 1783--caused 2015 to be the hottest year on record. How can we adapt?"The work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world."--Michael Crichton, 2003
In What Really Causes Global Warming, a new explanation for climate change emerges it explains observed changes in temperature in far more detail, with far greater accuracy, than greenhouse-gas theory; it shows continued warming is not expected over the next century and that we can continue to use all types of fossil fuels safely, provided we limit pollution."
The motivation for the organization of this symposium was the accumulation of evidence from many sources, both short- and long-term, that the global climate is in a state of change. Data which defy integrated explanation including temperature, ozone, methane, precipitation and other climate-related trends have presented troubling problems for atmospheric science since the 1980's. Ten papers from this symposium are presented here: (1) "Global Change and the Changing Atmosphere" (William C. Clark); (2) "Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Global Processes" (Daniel L. Albritton); (3) "Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Antarctic Processes" (Robert T. Watson); (4) "The Role of Halocarbons in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion" (F. Sherwood Rowland); (5) "Heterogenous Chemical Processes in Ozone Depletion" (Mario J. Molina); (6) "Free Radicals in the Earth's Atmosphere: Measurement and Interpretation" (James G. Anderson); (7) "Theoretical Projections of Stratospheric Change Due to Increasing Greenhouse Gases and Changing Ozone Concentrations" (Jerry D. Mahlman); (8) "Historical Trends in Atmospheric Methane Concentration and the Temperature Sensitivity of Methane Outgassing from Boreal and Polar Regions" (Robert C. Harriss); (9) "Global Temperature Trends" (Kevin E. Trenberth); and (10) "Use of Numerical Models to Project Greenhouse Gas-Induced Warming in Polar Regions (The Conceptual Basis Developed Over the Last Twenty Years)" (Robert E. Dickinson). A glossary of terms, agendas, and a list of participants are appended. (CW)
Author: Daniel R. Faust
Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
Discusses the ozone layer, the effect of ultraviolet radition on living things, and the casues and effects of global warming, through a fictional story in graphic novel format about a group of teenagers at the beach.
Climate Change and Human Health
Author: Anthony J. McMichael, World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
This publication, prepared jointly by the WHO, the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, considers the public health challenges arising from global climate change and options for policy responses, with particular focus on the health sector. Aspects discussed include: an overview of historical developments and recent scientific assessments; weather and climate change; population vulnerability and the adaptive capacity of public health systems; the IPCC Third Assessment report; tasks for public health scientists; the health impacts of climate extremes; climate change, infectious diseases and the level of disease burdens; ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation and health; and methodological issues in monitoring health effects of climate change.
Climate Change Science:
Author: Committee on the Science of Climate Change, National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publisher: National Academies Press
The warming of the Earth has been the subject of intense debate and concern for many scientists, policy-makers, and citizens for at least the past decade. Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions, a new report by a committee of the National Research Council, characterizes the global warming trend over the last 100 years, and examines what may be in store for the 21st century and the extent to which warming may be attributable to human activity.
This monograph reviews the establishment of new theories of the ozone hole and global climate change, two major scientific problems of global concern. It provides a comprehensive overview of the author's work including significant discoveries and pioneering contributions, such as the discovery of extremely effective dissociative electron transfer reactions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) adsorbed on ice surfaces and its implications for atmospheric ozone depletion; the proposal of the cosmic-ray-driven electron-induced-reaction (CRE) theory for the ozone hole; the predictions of 11-year cyclic variations in polar ozone loss and stratospheric cooling; the discovery of the nearly perfect linear correlation between CFCs and global surface temperature; the proposal of the CFC theory for modern global warming; the discovery of greenhouse-gas-specific climate sensitivity and the parameter-free calculation of global surface temperature change caused by CFCs; the prediction of global cooling; and so on. Unlike conventional atmospheric and climate models, the author's theoretical models were established on robust observed data rather than computer simulations with multiple parameters. The new theories have shown the best agreements with the observed data within 10% uncertainties. This book highlights the scientific understandings of the world-concerned problems from the unique point of view of a physicist who seeks theories with great simplicity and superior predictive capacity. This book is self-contained and unified in presentation. It may be used as an advanced book by graduate students and even ambitious undergraduates in physics, chemistry, environmental and climate sciences. It is also suitable for non-expert readers and policy makers who wish to have an overview of the sciences behind atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change. Contents:Basic Physics and Chemistry of the Earth's AtmosphereInteractions of Electrons with Atmospheric MoleculesConventional Understanding of Ozone DepletionThe Cosmic-Ray-Driven Theory of the Ozone Hole: Laboratory ObservationsThe Cosmic-Ray-Driven Theory of the Ozone Hole: Atmospheric ObservationsConventional Understanding of Climate ChangeNatural Drivers of Climate ChangeNew Theory of Global Climate ChangeImpacts on Science, Policy and Economics Readership: Graduate students in climate science, non-experts and policy makers who wish to have an overview of the sciences behind ozone depletion and global climate change. Key Features:Provides unique scientific understandings of the world-concerned problems from a physicist of penetrating thought and great intuitionDescribes the author's new theories that have great simplicity and superior predictive capacity with no complex mathematical equations and parametersPresents the author's predictions that have shown excellent agreements with observed dataKeywords:Global Warming;Global Cooling;Global Climate Change;Ozone Hole;Ozone Depletion;CFCs;Greenhouse Effect;Dissociative Electron Transfer Reactions;Ice Surface;Atmospheric Physics
Human-Induced Climate Change
Author: Michael E. Schlesinger, Haroon S. Kheshgi, Joel Smith, Francisco C. de la Chesnaye, John M. Reilly, Tom Wilson, Charles Kolstad
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Bringing together many of the world's leading experts, this volume is a comprehensive, state-of-the-art review of climate change science, impacts, mitigation, adaptation, and policy. It provides an integrated assessment of research on the key topics that underlie current controversial policy questions. The first part of the book addresses recent topics and findings related to the physical-biological earth system. The next part of the book surveys estimates of the impacts of climate change for different sectors and regions. The third part examines current topics related to mitigation of greenhouse gases and explores the potential roles of various technological options. The last part focuses on policy design under uncertainty. Dealing with the scientific, economic and policy questions at the forefront of the climate change issue, this book will be invaluable for graduate students, researchers and policymakers interested in all aspects of climate change and the issues that surround it.
Climatic changes, air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions.
In recent years, several new concepts have emerged in the field of stratospheric ozone depletion, creating a need for a concise in-depth publication covering the ozone-climate issue. This monograph fills that void in the literature and gives detailed treatment of recent advances in the field of stratospheric ozone depletion. It puts particular emphasis on the coupling between changes in the ozone layer and atmospheric change caused by a changing climate. The book, written by leading experts in the field, brings the reader the most recent research in this area and fills the gap between advanced textbooks and assessments.
A balanced assessment based on currently available scientific knowledge of the effects that climate change may have on the environment in Europe and the health of its populations. Written in non-technical language the book responds to growing public and political concern about the consequences of such widely publicized phenomena as global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. The book also responds to evidence that recent warming trends in Europe have already affected health. The book opens with a brief explanation of the causes of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion followed by an overview of recent European and global initiatives aimed at monitoring trends and assessing their impact on health. The first main chapter on climate change in Europe summarizes currently documented trends and provides a scenario of possible changes throughout the rest of this century. The second and most extensive chapter reviews scientific evidence on specific health consequences. These include effects related to increased episodes of thermal stress and air pollution; changes in foodborne water-related vector-borne and rodent-borne diseases; mortality from floods and other weather extremes; and changes in the production of aeroallergens associated with respiratory disorders including asthma. Chapter three considers health effects linked to stratospheric ozone depletion giving particular attention to adverse effects on the eye and immune system and skin cancer. The remaining chapters discuss health effects expected in the next decade and outline actions urgently needed in the areas of policy monitoring and surveillance and research.
It is generally accepted within the scientific community that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are primarily responsible for a recent warming in global climate and that current trajectories of emissions may lead to potentially catastrophic changes in climate. While reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases, and particularly carbon dioxide, could lead to a stabilisation of global temperatures, this requires international agreements which have yet to be achieved. A possible alternative, which has been widely mooted is to use methods known as geoengineering as an alternative way of limiting increases in global temperature. Geoengineering techniques fall into two main categories of carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management; within each of these there are a number of options. Following on from “Carbon Capture” (volume 29 in this series), Geoengineering of the Climate System presents an overview of the technologies currently being considered as large scale solutions to climate change, and considers some of the possible benefits and disadvantages of each. Invited contributions have been received by many of the leading experts on these technologies, and the volume provides a comprehensive overview of both carbon dioxide reduction and solar radiation management methods. These give rise to important ethical and governance issues which are also explored. Written with active researchers, postgraduate students and policy-makers in mind, the latest addition to the Issues in Environmental Science & Technology series presents a balanced and informed view of this important field of research and is an essential addition to any environmental science library.
Global Environmental Change
Author: Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Board on Environmental Change and Society, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Global environmental change often seems to be the most carefully examined issue of our time. Yet understanding the human side--human causes of and responses to environmental change--has not yet received sustained attention. Global Environmental Change offers a strategy for combining the efforts of natural and social scientists to better understand how our actions influence global change and how global change influences us. The volume is accessible to the nonscientist and provides a wide range of examples and case studies. It explores how the attitudes and actions of individuals, governments, and organizations intertwine to leave their mark on the health of the planet. The book focuses on establishing a framework for this new field of study, identifying problems that must be overcome if we are to deepen our understanding of the human dimensions of global change, presenting conclusions and recommendations.
An illustrated overview of the sustainability of natural resources and the social and environmental issues surrounding their distribution and demand.