Science Is Never “Settled” Thousands of scientists are convinced beyond any reasonable doubt that recent global warming is being caused by emissions of greenhouse gases and that we must act immediately to reduce these emissions or else we may render Earth unlivable for our children and our grandchildren. Some even say “the science is settled.” What Really Causes Global Warming examines a broad range of observations that show that greenhouse warming theory is not only misguided, but not physically possible. Recent warming was caused by ozone depletion due to emissions of human-manufactured gases. We solved that problem with the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer stopping the increase in global temperatures by 1998. Volcanoes also deplete ozone. The eruption of Bárðarbunga volcano in central Iceland from August 2014 to February 2015—the largest effusive, basaltic, volcanic eruption since 1783—caused 2015 to be the hottest year on record. How can we adapt? “The work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world.”— Michael Crichton, 2003
The motivation for the organization of this symposium was the accumulation of evidence from many sources, both short- and long-term, that the global climate is in a state of change. Data which defy integrated explanation including temperature, ozone, methane, precipitation and other climate-related trends have presented troubling problems for atmospheric science since the 1980's. Ten papers from this symposium are presented here: (1) "Global Change and the Changing Atmosphere" (William C. Clark); (2) "Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Global Processes" (Daniel L. Albritton); (3) "Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: Antarctic Processes" (Robert T. Watson); (4) "The Role of Halocarbons in Stratospheric Ozone Depletion" (F. Sherwood Rowland); (5) "Heterogenous Chemical Processes in Ozone Depletion" (Mario J. Molina); (6) "Free Radicals in the Earth's Atmosphere: Measurement and Interpretation" (James G. Anderson); (7) "Theoretical Projections of Stratospheric Change Due to Increasing Greenhouse Gases and Changing Ozone Concentrations" (Jerry D. Mahlman); (8) "Historical Trends in Atmospheric Methane Concentration and the Temperature Sensitivity of Methane Outgassing from Boreal and Polar Regions" (Robert C. Harriss); (9) "Global Temperature Trends" (Kevin E. Trenberth); and (10) "Use of Numerical Models to Project Greenhouse Gas-Induced Warming in Polar Regions (The Conceptual Basis Developed Over the Last Twenty Years)" (Robert E. Dickinson). A glossary of terms, agendas, and a list of participants are appended. (CW)
A balanced assessment based on currently available scientific knowledge of the effects that climate change may have on the environment in Europe and the health of its populations. Written in non-technical language the book responds to growing public and political concern about the consequences of such widely publicized phenomena as global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. The book also responds to evidence that recent warming trends in Europe have already affected health. The book opens with a brief explanation of the causes of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion followed by an overview of recent European and global initiatives aimed at monitoring trends and assessing their impact on health. The first main chapter on climate change in Europe summarizes currently documented trends and provides a scenario of possible changes throughout the rest of this century. The second and most extensive chapter reviews scientific evidence on specific health consequences. These include effects related to increased episodes of thermal stress and air pollution; changes in foodborne water-related vector-borne and rodent-borne diseases; mortality from floods and other weather extremes; and changes in the production of aeroallergens associated with respiratory disorders including asthma. Chapter three considers health effects linked to stratospheric ozone depletion giving particular attention to adverse effects on the eye and immune system and skin cancer. The remaining chapters discuss health effects expected in the next decade and outline actions urgently needed in the areas of policy monitoring and surveillance and research.
This monograph reviews the establishment of new theories of the ozone hole and global climate change, two major scientific problems of global concern. It provides a comprehensive overview of the author's work including significant discoveries and pioneering contributions, such as the discovery of extremely effective dissociative electron transfer reactions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) adsorbed on ice surfaces and its implications for atmospheric ozone depletion; the proposal of the cosmic-ray-driven electron-induced-reaction (CRE) theory for the ozone hole; the predictions of 11-year cyclic variations in polar ozone loss and stratospheric cooling; the discovery of the nearly perfect linear correlation between CFCs and global surface temperature; the proposal of the CFC theory for modern global warming; the discovery of greenhouse-gas-specific climate sensitivity and the parameter-free calculation of global surface temperature change caused by CFCs; the prediction of global cooling; and so on. Unlike conventional atmospheric and climate models, the author's theoretical models were established on robust observed data rather than computer simulations with multiple parameters. The new theories have shown the best agreements with the observed data within 10% uncertainties. This book highlights the scientific understandings of the world-concerned problems from the unique point of view of a physicist who seeks theories with great simplicity and superior predictive capacity. This book is self-contained and unified in presentation. It may be used as an advanced book by graduate students and even ambitious undergraduates in physics, chemistry, environmental and climate sciences. It is also suitable for non-expert readers and policy makers who wish to have an overview of the sciences behind atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change. Contents:Basic Physics and Chemistry of the Earth's AtmosphereInteractions of Electrons with Atmospheric MoleculesConventional Understanding of Ozone DepletionThe Cosmic-Ray-Driven Theory of the Ozone Hole: Laboratory ObservationsThe Cosmic-Ray-Driven Theory of the Ozone Hole: Atmospheric ObservationsConventional Understanding of Climate ChangeNatural Drivers of Climate ChangeNew Theory of Global Climate ChangeImpacts on Science, Policy and Economics Readership: Graduate students in climate science, non-experts and policy makers who wish to have an overview of the sciences behind ozone depletion and global climate change. Key Features:Provides unique scientific understandings of the world-concerned problems from a physicist of penetrating thought and great intuitionDescribes the author's new theories that have great simplicity and superior predictive capacity with no complex mathematical equations and parametersPresents the author's predictions that have shown excellent agreements with observed dataKeywords:Global Warming;Global Cooling;Global Climate Change;Ozone Hole;Ozone Depletion;CFCs;Greenhouse Effect;Dissociative Electron Transfer Reactions;Ice Surface;Atmospheric Physics
Addresses two major environmental issues associated with the earth1s atmosphere: global warming and the depletion of the atmosphere1s ozone layer. Begins with an assessment of how the atmosphere naturally influences the earth1s climate and how that climate has behaved in the past. It also deals with the potential depletion of the upper atmosphere1s protective ozone layer. The final chapter considers the linkages between these two issues, other atmospheric pollution problems, and human behavior, and examines what is being done and must be done to respond, both nationally and internationally. 40 charts, maps and tables. Emphasis on Canada.
Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases, and Climate Change
Author: Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Committee on Global Change, National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications
Publisher: National Academies Press
Ozone depletion in the stratosphere and increases in greenhouse gases in the troposphere are both subjects of growing concern--even alarm--among scientists, policymakers, and the public. At the same time, recent data show that these atmospheric developments are interconnected and in turn profoundly affect climatic conditions. This volume presents the most up-to-date data and theories available on ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climatic change. These questions and more are addressed: What is the current understanding of the processes that destroy ozone in the atmosphere? What role do greenhouse gases play in ozone depletion?
Causes and Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Reduction
Author: Committee on Chemistry and Physics of Ozone Depletion, Committee on Biological Effects of Increased Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, Environmental Studies Board, Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Environmentalism contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on important events, issues, organizations, ideas, and people shaping the direction of environmentalism worldwide.
Author: Frances Drake
First published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium
Author: National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, Space Studies Board, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee
Publisher: National Academies Press
In preparing the report, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium , the AASC made use of a series of panel reports that address various aspects of ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysics. These reports provide in-depth technical detail. Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium: An Overview summarizes the science goals and recommended initiatives in a short, richly illustrated, non-technical booklet.
One Earth, One Future:
Author: Cheryl Simon Silver, Ruth S. DeFries, National Academy of Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
Written for nonscientists, One Earth, One Future can help individuals understand the basic science behind changes in the global environment and the resulting policy implications that the population of the entire planet must face. The volume describes the earth as a unified system--exploring the interactions between the atmosphere, land, and water and the snowballing impact that human activity is having on the system--and presents perspectives on policies and programs that can both develop and protect our natural resources. One Earth, One Future discusses why such seemingly diverse issues as historical climate change, species diversity, and sea-level rise are part of a single picture--and how human activity is the critical element in that picture. The book concludes with practical examinations of economic, security, and development questions, with a view toward achieving improvements in quality of life without further environmental degradation. One Earth, One Future is must reading for anyone interested in the interrelationship of environmental matters and public policy issues.
Climate Change and Human Health
Author: Anthony J. McMichael, World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
This publication, prepared jointly by the WHO, the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme, considers the public health challenges arising from global climate change and options for policy responses, with particular focus on the health sector. Aspects discussed include: an overview of historical developments and recent scientific assessments; weather and climate change; population vulnerability and the adaptive capacity of public health systems; the IPCC Third Assessment report; tasks for public health scientists; the health impacts of climate extremes; climate change, infectious diseases and the level of disease burdens; ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation and health; and methodological issues in monitoring health effects of climate change.
Challenge of Global Warming examines the causes and effects of global climate change.
Author: Kiran Chhokar, Mamata Pandya, Meena Raghunathan
Designed as a basic text for foundation and undergraduate courses in Environmental Studies, this book introduces students to key scientific concepts related to environment and sustainable development. It provides a comprehensive understanding of environmental concerns and issues with special reference to the Indian context. The primary objective of the book is to create an awareness of the environment. It conceptualizes the environment as a multidimensional and complex living system and describes the interlinkages that make up this system. The presentation is supported by relevant examples and case studies to contextualize the information given. Questions and self-learning exercises are provided at the end of each chapter to assist students to understand and apply the content in their immediate environment. Specifically, the book: - Highlights the interconnectedness of phenomena in real life, and the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies. - Presents case studies to highlight examples of individual and collective action that have 'made a difference'. - Provides self-learning exercises for each chapter to help develop skills of observation, data collection, analysis, synthesis and presentation. Written in a non-technical manner and supported by attractive illustrations, this text will be welcomed not only by students but by anyone interested in understanding the environment. It is specially relevant as it is being published on the eve of the UN Decade for Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014).